The Iquitos Refinery is 14km from Iquitos City, Peru, in the Loreto Region, capital of the Peruvian Amazon . A city deep within the jungle, inaccessible by road, with approximately 437,620 inhabitants . It is a small refinery situated in a resource rich region, located on the left bank of the Amazon river with a capacity of 10,500 barrels per day . Equipped with a rusty four-decade old pipeline used to transport extracted crude oil, making oil spills inevitable . These spills stain the land that many indigenous communities in Iquitos depend on for their survival. This analysis will show the energy injustices at this site, and how they arose, through the theory of the resource curse.
In 1914, Shell Oil Company built a refinery in Martinez, CA for its undeveloped land and accessibility to transportation and a body of water to help the refinery process .The environment and residents of Martinez suffer as a result of negligence from Shell and, in turn, are bearing the cost of the energy system. They suffer from bad air quality, environmental damages, and other issues caused by the oil refinery. Those who benefit from the refinery include those who use the products Shell produces (gas, diesel, lubricants, plastic, and jet fuel).The case of Shell Oil and the Martinez community is an example of environmental classism,Oil Colonialism, and a sacrifice zone.
March 23rd, 2005 marked yet another environmental injustice for Texas City, Texas: an oil spill which ended with 15 deaths and 170 injured . As the third largest refinery in the U.S, this explosion was particularly damaging due to most of the 15 deaths being nonessential personnel that were in the wrong place at the wrong time . Government and media investigations followed, along with many legal proceedings to compensate for the lives lost . I will show how the energy injustices of this site arose through the fossil fuel companies that generate environmental racism and sacrifice zones.
The Chevron Oil Refinery, located in Richmond California is an energy injustice site because it is polluting a marginalized community, with 82% of the inhabitants in Richmond being people of color. This plant happens to be one of the largest in the United States, pumping out over 240,000 barrels of oil per day . This refinery isn’t limited to just oil however, but in fact processes gasoline, jet fuel, chemical products, and diesel. Currently, there are over 3500 residents in North Richmond that are facing the immediate environmental and negative health effects of being located right next to the refinery; 97% of those residents being African American, Latino, or Asian. I will show that the energy injustices at this site occur because of environmental racism and the location being deemed a sacrifice zone.
Home to more than 272,000 people, Haifa is the third most populated city in Israel, and stretches across almost 9% of Israel’s shoreline. Haifa is considered a key industrial center in Israel, and is home to an energy group called the ORL (Oil Refineries Ltd.) which operates Israel’s largest oil refining complex.
In November of 2006, a local newspaper in South Dakota made the first report that “an unidentified company [is] interested in locating ‘a large manufacturing facility in Southern Union County’”. Over the next few months, the community learned that said company was Texas-based Hyperion Energy, which was looking to build the first new oil refinery in the US since 1976, and the sixth largest in the nation, meant to refine bitumen from tar sands in Alberta, Canada.